Phage T4 is a large DNA virus that infects and multiplies in the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) and certain other bacteria that normally inhabit the mammalian gut. Relatives of T4 are widely distributed in nature and propagate in a variety of bacterial species in marine and terrestrial environments. The genomes of these phages encode an enormous biochemical complexity that rival the complexity exhibited by the much larger genomes of their bacterial hosts. Collectively, T4 and its relatives have proven to be powerful systems for research into the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that control the replication, expression and evolution of DNA genomes as well as viral assembly. This book contains a collection of review articles covering research in these areas over the last 20 years. The articles appeared online as a thematic series in 2010 in BioMed Central's Virology Journal. They are reprinted here in hardcopy as a convenient source of the most current reviewed information on this family of phages for instructors and trainees in the microbial and molecular biological sciences.
This book recounts results obtained via the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) on comets, in the close environment of pre-main sequence stars, in the interstellar medium, and in the final stages of stellar life, using molecular hydrogen, ubiquitous crystalline silicates, water and ices. ISO has enabled investigation of the fuelling mechanism of galaxies, and new understanding of luminous infrared galaxies and their role in shaping present galaxies and in producing the cosmic infrared background.
At a time when the Romantic movement was sweeping the European continent in the early 19th century, among musicians, writers and playwrights, perhaps nobody embodied and personified the Romantic movement quite like Lord Byron, the famous English poet whose life and works are both the stuff of legend. In addition to being celebrated for poems like She Walks in Beauty, When We Two Parted, and So, we'll go no more a roving, Byron was also notorious for living in excess, racking up debts and liaisons at increasingly reckless speeds. Despite his fame and abilities, he eventually exiled himself, ultimately traveling to fight in the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Turks. Lord Byron would fall ill and die during the war at the young age of 36, but the Greeks consider him a national hero, and people have been reading his material and talking about his life ever since.