Why do people in a business negotiation settle for less than each of them could and should receive? Two rational players face off in an economic game. Each pursues interests as conventional theory dictates, but all too often, the result is suboptimal. Why do they fail to capture what Dr. Young calls the cooperative surplus? Dr. Young proposes that the root of the problem lies in the philosophical assumptions underlying decision and game theory. The common understanding of economic rationality is fundamentally flawed, he says. It assumes that rational players are always self-interested and that they will make decisions on the basis of consequences. Arguing that no theory of economic rationality developed from this foundation can lead to the desired prescriptive results, Dr. Young maintains that a successful prescriptive theory of rationality must start from a different premise: the notion of actors as autonomous agents who act over and above their inclinations to express their identity. Dr. Young advances his own notion of economic rationality, then seeks to establish rules by which rational economic players can jointly create a common base for business negotiation. The results of bargaining will then be in equilibrium, and a solution optimal to both sides can be reached. Already praised by philosophers in Europe for its innovative vision and practicality, this book is a must for business executives and attorneys engaged in business negotiations, as well as for their colleagues with similar interests in the academic community.
This book is an example of fruitful interaction between (non-classical) propo- sitionallogics and (classical) model theory which was made possible due to categorical logic. Its main aim consists in investigating the existence of model- completions for equational theories arising from propositional logics (such as the theory of Heyting algebras and various kinds of theories related to proposi- tional modal logic ). The existence of model-completions turns out to be related to proof-theoretic facts concerning interpretability of second order propositional logic into ordinary propositional logic through the so-called 'Pitts' quantifiers' or 'bisimulation quantifiers'. On the other hand, the book develops a large number of topics concerning the categorical structure of finitely presented al- gebras, with related applications to propositional logics, both standard (like Beth's theorems) and new (like effectiveness of internal equivalence relations, projectivity and definability of dual connectives such as difference). A special emphasis is put on sheaf representation, showing that much of the nice categor- ical structure of finitely presented algebras is in fact only a restriction of natural structure in sheaves. Applications to the theory of classifying toposes are also covered, yielding new examples. The book has to be considered mainly as a research book, reporting recent and often completely new results in the field; we believe it can also be fruitfully used as a complementary book for graduate courses in categorical and algebraic logic, universal algebra, model theory, and non-classical logics. 1.
The Great Recession changed the world. After the global financial meltdown almost permanently destroyed the lives of people in many countries, poetry reflected the damages and the resolve to survive. The poems in this collection are examples of how much the everyday lives of people mean in the context of social change.