The Encyclopaedia Britannica; Latest Edition. A Dictionary Of Arts, Sciences And General Literature Volume 8
This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1902 Excerpt: ...which at least set limits to Brav ng" the possibility of error. European wood engraving dates certainly from the first quarter of the 15th century. It used to be believed that a cut of St Christopher, very rudely executed, and dated 1423, was the Adam of all our woodcuts, but subsequent investigations have shaken this theory. There is a cut in the Brussels library, of the Virgin and Child surrounded by four saints, which is dated 1418, but the composition is so very elegant and the drawing sc refined and beautiful, that one has a difficulty in believing the date, though it is received as authentic. The Virgin and Child of the Paris library is without date, but is supposed, apparently with reason, to be earlier than either of the two we have mentioned; and M. Delaborde has proved that two cuts were printed in 1406. The Virgin and Child at Paris may be taken as a good representative specimen of very early European wood engraving. It is simplo art, but not bad art. The forms are drawn in bold thick lines, and the black blot is used with much effect in the hollows and recesses of the design. Beyond this there is no shading. Rude as the work is, the artist has expressed exquisite maternal tenderness in the pressure of the Virgin's check to that of the Child, whilst the attitude of the Child itself, with its foot in its hand and its arm round the mother's neck, is most true to nature, as is the pose of the other foot against the mother's arm, and also the baby-like bending and twisting of the legs. The Virgin is crowned, and stands against a niche-like decoration with pinnacles as often seen in illuminated manuscripts. In the woodcut this architectural decoration is boldly but effectively drawn. Here, then, we have real art already, art in which appeared bot...
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Volume 4; Latest Edition. A Dictionary Of Arts, Sciences And General Literature
This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1902 Excerpt: ...he had exhibited a strong taste for natural science; his innate bias was at this time stimulated by the lectures of Dr Kidd on mineralogy and chemistry, and his attention was thus more especially drawn to the then infant science of geology. He now devoted himself systematically to an examination of the geological structure of Great Britain, making many excursions on horseback, and investiB-ating both the order of superposition of the strata and the characters of the organic remains which they contained. In 1813, on the resignation of Dr Kidd, he was appointed reader in mineralogy in Oxford; and the interest excited by his lectures was so great that in 1819 a readership in geology was founded and especially endowed by the Treasury, Dr Buckland being the first holder of tho new appointment. In 1818 Dr Buckland was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1824 he was chosen president of the Geological Society of London, of which he had long been a fellow. In 1825 ho resigned his fellowship at Corpus, and was presented by his college to the living of Stoke Charity, near Whitchurch, Hants, and in the same year he was appointed by Lord Liverpool to a canonry of tho cathedral of Christ Church, Oxford. In the same year, also, he married Mary, the eldest daughter of Mr Benjamin Morland of Shecpstead House, near Abingdon, Berks, by whose high intellectual abilities and excellent judgment he was materially assisted in his literary labours. During the succeeding twenty years he laboured diligently in various departments of his favourite science, visiting many interesting localities, both at home and abroad, accumulating extensive collections, and communicating numerous memoirs to learned societies. In 1845 he was apppointed by Sir Robert Peel to the vacant deanery...